In Sardinia there is a remarkable viticultural biodiversity that colors Sardinian geography both in the major and minor varieties (many of which are being recovered).
Among the most cultivated there are, in order of planted area: the cannonau and the Vermentino followed by the monica, the nuragus, the carignano, the pascale, (which are the main Sardinian wine-growing platform, exceeding the 75% of the entire area planted with vines), followed by the remainder: bovale, the sangiovese, the Vernaccia, the cabernet sauvignon, the cagnulari, the malvasia and the muscat, the merlot, the Sardinian Barbera, the montepulciano, the nebbiolo, the syrah, the peated, the nasco, the Nieddera, the round, the Semidano, L'arvesiniadu, the Caricagiola, the nieddu mannu, the Greek black, the retagliado, L'albaranzeuli black and white, etc ...
As can be seen from the list, traditional varieties are predominant, but there are also many national and international varieties (8%), introduced in Sardinia for different reasons, which have shown a good adaptation to the various areas of the island.
The red berry varieties prevail, primarily the cannonau grape and, while, among the white berry varieties, the strong reduction of the white nuragus grape emerges and, on the other hand, the continuous production growth of vermentino (today among the most cultivated varieties of the 'island).
In fact, among the Sardinian wines, Vermentino has taken off in recent years, not only in terms of production but also for the significant increase in demand, so much so that it has become the best-selling white wine in Italy.
Wines produced are:
• Vermentino di Gallura Docg (even higher)
• Vermentino di Sardegna Doc (in the dry, sweet, sparkling versions).
• Alghero Vermentino Doc (also sparkling)
Among the white grape varieties of Sardinia, Nuragus and Semidano (grown in a small area of the Oristano Campidano) have undergone a considerable contraction in recent years.
• Nuragus of Cagliari Doc (dry, sparkling, sweet);
• Sardinia Semidano Doc, with the sub-denomination "Mogoro", (In the superior, sparkling, passito versions).
Nasco is an ancient, widespread grape variety in the Cagliari hinterland and is the basis of:
• Nasco of Cagliari Doc (dry, liqueur dry, liqueur reserve).
Vernaccia is a noble grape variety produced today almost exclusively in the province of Oristano which first obtained the Denomination of Origin (1971).
• Vernaccia di Oristano Doc (in the Superior, Dry fortified and Sweet fortified versions).
Malvasia and Moscato are two aromatic vines spread throughout the Mediterranean basin and which, in Sardinia, give rise to:
• Malvasia di Bosa Doc (dry, natural sweet, natural sweet liqueur, dry sweet).
• Malvasia of Cagliari Doc (dry, fortified, dry fortified, fortified reserve).
• Moscato di Cagliari Doc (natural liqueur, natural liqueur reserve)
• Moscato di Sorso Sennori Doc (sweet liqueur)
• Moscato di Sardegna Sparkling wine (with sub-denominations "Gallura" or "Tempio".
The peat is produced in a small area in the territory of Alghero and, also vinified in the sparkling version, allows to produce:
• Alghero Torbato Doc (also sparkling wine)
Sardinian wines from red berried grapes are numerous and Cannonau is the king.
IS the most representative of the Sardinian territory and the most widespread in the whole island. The 70% of the area planted with vines in cannonau is concentrated in the province of Nuoro but the organoleptic results vary enormously from area to area, although the sensorial trace that identifies it remains always and in any case. The Denomination of Origin qualifies it as:
• Cannonau di Sardegna Doc (rosé, reserve, dry liqueur, sweet liqueur).
Other prestigious red grape varieties are carignano (mainly concentrated in Sulcis, south of the island), bovale (there are two varieties, the Sardinian bovale and the Spanish bovale), the monica (present throughout the island territory from which two Doc) and the cagnulari are obtained.
• Carignano del Sulcis Doc (rosto, red, reserve red, red sup., new, passito),
• Mandrolisai Doc (blend of Sardinian bovine, monica and cannonau),
• Campidano di Terralba or Terralba Doc (Sardinian boval and Spanish boval),
• Monica of Sardinia Doc (dry, sweet, sparkling, superior),
• Monica of Cagliari Doc (dry, fortified, reserve).
The girò is an ideal grape variety for the preparation of elegant red dessert wines but whose production is today limited to small areas in the south of the island.
• He went around Cagliari (in the versions: Fortified, Dry Fortified and Fortified Reserve).
Viticultural biodiversity in Sardinia.
Piero Canopoli and Giuliana Dalla Longa